Nearly a year since the coronavirus disease was first reported in Wuhan, China, vaccines are now being approved for distribution around the world.
As of Friday, Dec. 11, there have been more than 15 million confirmed COVID-19 cases and nearly 300,000 related-deaths in the U.S.
People are hopeful things are changing soon with the rollout of multiple vaccines showing more than 90% efficiency rates against the disease.
Here’s what we know about the three leading vaccines for COVID-19 so far:
AZD1222 by AstraZeneca
Effectiveness rate: AstraZeneca reports its vaccine is 90% effective against COVID-19 when given as a half dose, followed by a full dose at least one month apart
Storage temperature: AZD1222 can be stored at normal fridge temperatures for at least six months, according to a report by Business Insider.
Side effects reported: The Observer reports at least two participants in phase 3 trial experienced transverse myelitis, an inflammatory syndrome that affects the spinal cord.
Trial: AstraZeneca is currently in phase III of its trial analysis.
Approval: AstraZeneca is still awaiting approval from the Food and Drug Administration.
First administered: If approved, the AstraZeneca vaccine could possibly be availble by late December or early 2021, according to BioSpace.
mRNA-1273 by Moderna
Effectiveness rate: According to Moderna, mRNA-1273 is 94.1% effective against COVID-19.
Storage temperature: 36° to 46°F
Side effects reported: In the Moderna vaccine trials, a small percentage of patients experience severe side effects including fatigue, muscle pain, joint pain, and headaches, GoodRx reports.
Trial: Moderna is currently in phase III of its trial analysis.
Approval: Moderna is still awaiting approval from the Food and Drug Administration.
First administered: The experimental vaccine by Moderna was first administered in the U.S. on March 16.
BNT162b2 by Pfizer
Effectiveness rate: According to Pfizer, its analysis shows BNT162b2 is 95% effective against COVID-19 beginning 28 days after the first dose.
Storage temperature: -70°C ± 10°C
Side effects reported: In the Pfizer vaccine trials, few patients experienced severe side effects including fatigue and headache, according to GoodRx.
Trial: Pfizer has completed phase III of its vaccine trial.
Approval: On Thursday, Dec. 10, the Food and Drug Administration approved the Pfizer vaccine for administration in the United States.
First administered: The vaccine was first administered to a 90-year-old woman on Tuesday, Dec. 8 in the United Kingdom.