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What we know about the COVID-19 vaccines so far

FILE - In this Thursday, Jan. 23, 2020, file photo, a patient receives an influenza vaccine in Mesquite, Texas. New government data suggests more Americans have been getting flu shots in 2020, apparently heeding the advice of health officials fearful of a flu/coronavirus double pandemic. (AP Photo/LM Otero, File) (Copyright 2020 The Associated Press. All rights reserved.)

Nearly a year since the coronavirus disease was first reported in Wuhan, China, vaccines are now being approved for distribution around the world.

As of Friday, Dec. 11, there have been more than 15 million confirmed COVID-19 cases and nearly 300,000 related-deaths in the U.S.

People are hopeful things are changing soon with the rollout of multiple vaccines showing more than 90% efficiency rates against the disease.

Here’s what we know about the three leading vaccines for COVID-19 so far:

AZD1222 by AstraZeneca

FILE - This undated file photo issued by the University of Oxford on Monday, Nov. 23, 2020, shows of vial of coronavirus vaccine developed by AstraZeneca and Oxford University, in Oxford, England. (John Cairns/University of Oxford via AP, File)

Effectiveness rate: AstraZeneca reports its vaccine is 90% effective against COVID-19 when given as a half dose, followed by a full dose at least one month apart

Storage temperature: AZD1222 can be stored at normal fridge temperatures for at least six months, according to a report by Business Insider.

Side effects reported: The Observer reports at least two participants in phase 3 trial experienced transverse myelitis, an inflammatory syndrome that affects the spinal cord.

Trial: AstraZeneca is currently in phase III of its trial analysis.

Approval: AstraZeneca is still awaiting approval from the Food and Drug Administration.

First administered: If approved, the AstraZeneca vaccine could possibly be availble by late December or early 2021, according to BioSpace.

mRNA-1273 by Moderna

FILE - In this Monday, July 27, 2020 file photo, a nurse prepares a syringe during a study of a possible COVID-19 vaccine, developed by the National Institutes of Health and Moderna Inc., in Binghamton, N.Y. With coronavirus vaccines on the horizon, when and where will most Americans get their shots? Many of the details are still being worked out, as regulators review the first vaccine candidates. A federal panel of vaccine experts is meeting this week to consider Pfizer's vaccine, and again next week for Moderna's. (AP Photo/Hans Pennink) (Copyright 2020 The Associated Press. All rights reserved)

Effectiveness rate: According to Moderna, mRNA-1273 is 94.1% effective against COVID-19.

Storage temperature: 36° to 46°F

Side effects reported: In the Moderna vaccine trials, a small percentage of patients experience severe side effects including fatigue, muscle pain, joint pain, and headaches, GoodRx reports.

Trial: Moderna is currently in phase III of its trial analysis.

Approval: Moderna is still awaiting approval from the Food and Drug Administration.

First administered: The experimental vaccine by Moderna was first administered in the U.S. on March 16.

BNT162b2 by Pfizer

A nurse holds a phial of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine at Guy's Hospital in London, Tuesday, Dec. 8, 2020, as the U.K. health authorities rolled out a national mass vaccination program. U.K. regulators said Wednesday Dec. 9, 2020, that people who have a significant history of allergic reactions shouldnt receive the new Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine while they investigate two adverse reactions that occurred on the first day of the countrys mass vaccination program. (AP Photo/Frank Augstein, Pool) (Copyright 2020 The Associated Press. All rights reserved)

Effectiveness rate: According to Pfizer, its analysis shows BNT162b2 is 95% effective against COVID-19 beginning 28 days after the first dose.

Storage temperature: -70°C ± 10°C

Side effects reported: In the Pfizer vaccine trials, few patients experienced severe side effects including fatigue and headache, according to GoodRx.

Trial: Pfizer has completed phase III of its vaccine trial.

Approval: On Thursday, Dec. 10, the Food and Drug Administration approved the Pfizer vaccine for administration in the United States.

First administered: The vaccine was first administered to a 90-year-old woman on Tuesday, Dec. 8 in the United Kingdom.


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